Immunology 101: Why Intramuscular COVID-19 Vaccination Must Fail

Many countries are currently experiencing a wave of COVID-19 “breakthrough cases” in spite of high vaccination rates. In this paper, we explain the fundamental reason why such cases had to be expected: the antibodies induced by intramuscular vaccination will only circulate in the bloodstream, but they will not reach the surface of the mucous membranes in the upper airways. We also briefly discuss possible mechanisms of vaccine-induced immunopathology. Some of material discussed in this paper is also covered in a recent video by Dr. Bhakdi. The article is available for view and download.

Immunology 101: why intramuscular COVID-19 vaccination must fail – Doctors for COVID Ethics (

Published by markskidmore

Mark Skidmore is Professor of Economics at Michigan State University where he holds the Morris Chair in State and Local Government Finance and Policy. His research focuses on topics in public finance, regional economics, and the economics of natural disasters. Mark created the Lighthouse Economics website and blog to share economic research and information relevant for navigating tumultuous times.

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